Ideal Solution Elements (ISEs) are features, characteristics, attributes, and qualities, properties, which have been identified to meet the requirements or overcome the problem or concern.

Making associations with the paired ISEs means generating solutions for the stated problem in Step 1 by addressing and evaluating interactions and contradictions between paired ISEs.

Brainstorming is a method by which a group tries to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members (Osborn, A.F. (1963) Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative problem solving )

TRIZ is a methodology, tool set, knowledge base, and model-based technology for generating innovative ideas and solutions for problem solving. TRIZ provides tools and methods for use in problem formulation, system analysis, failure analysis, and patterns of system evolution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_base)