7.2.8 GLOSSARY

Patent Cooperation Treaty: The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in 1970. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its Contracting States. A patent application filed under the PCT is called an international application or PCT application. A single filing of an international application is made with a Receiving Office (RO) in one language. It then results in a search performed by an International Searching Authority (ISA), accompanied with a written opinion regarding the patentability of the invention which is the subject of the application. It is optionally followed by a preliminary examination, performed by an International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA). Finally, the examination (if provided by national law) and grant procedures are handled by the relevant national or regional authorities. The PCT does not lead to the grant of an "international patent", which does not exist.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent_Cooperation_Treaty)

A Community Trade Mark (CTM) is any trademark which is pending registration or has been registered in the European Union as a whole (rather than on a national level within the EU).The CTM system creates a unified trademark registration system in Europe, whereby one registration provides protection in all member states of the EU.. The CTM system is unitary in character. Although an objection against a CTM application in any member state can defeat the entire application, a CTM registration is enforceable in all member states. The CTM system is administered by the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (Trade Marks and Designs) (OHIM), which is located in Alicante, Spain (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_Trade_Mark)

The Madrid system for the international registration of marks, also conveniently known as the Madrid system or simply Madrid, is the primary international system for facilitating the registration of trademarks in multiple jurisdictions around the world.The Madrid system provides a centrally administered system of obtaining a bundle of trademark registrations in separate jurisdictions, all of which are based on an "international registration". Madrid provides a mechanism for obtaining trademark protection in many countries around the world, which is more effective than seeking protection separately in each individual country or jurisdiction of interest.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrid_System)

Bona fide: Good faith, or in Latin bona fide, is the mental and moral state of honesty, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct, even if the conviction is objectively unfounded. This concept is important in law, especially equitable matters.

TRIPS Agreement: The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. Specifically, TRIPS contains requirements that nations' laws must meet for: copyright rights, including the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations; Geographical indicators, including appellations of origin; Industrial design; Integrated circuit layout-designs; patents; monopolies for the developers of new plant varieties; trademarks; Trade dress; and undisclosed or confidential information. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIPS_Agreement)