Innovation types by innovation source

The OECD in Oslo Manual1 systematised innovation types by dividing the source of innovation into two groups: R&D and non-R&D:

(Figure 6: Innovation types by source)

The main idea of this systematization is to show that not all innovation processes in firms have to be developed or/and implemented in co-operation with R&D institutions (universities, research institutes, etc.). Moreover, the majority of innovative SMEs are not linked to any R&D institution. Few of them have their own R&D departments (in-house R&D), while others are innovating due to their skilled personnel.


1 Oslo Manual, 3rd Edition. (2005). Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data